The Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on the Gut–Brain Axis in Psychiatric Patients
The pathophysiology of several psychiatric diseases may entail disturbances in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and metabolic pathways. Variations in how these effects present themselves may be connected to individual variances in clinical symptoms and treatment responses, such as the observation that a significant fraction of participants do not respond to current antipsychotic drugs. A bidirectional signaling pathway between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract is known as the microbiota–gut–brain axis. The large and small intestines contain more than 100 trillion microbial cells, contributing to the intestinal ecosystem’s incredible complexity. Interactions between the microbiota and intestinal epithelium can alter brain physiology and affect mood and behavior. There has recently been a focus on how these relationships impact mental health. According to evidence, intestinal microbiota may play a role in neurological and mental illnesses. Intestinal metabolites of microbial origin, such as short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan metabolites, and bacterial components that might stimulate the host’s immune system, are mentioned in this review. We aim to shed some on the growing role of gut microbiota in inducing/manipulating several psychiatric disorders, which may pave the way for novel microbiota-based therapies. © 2023 by the authors.